The Accidental Fast

For the last few months, Lisa and I have been coaching and encouraging some friends who had seen the results of her weight loss journey and mine.

We have a few separate text message threads going with different friends. This enables us to support and advise them, while also creating a shared diary of our experience together.

One couple started about three months ago by cutting sugar, limiting carbs and also adding alternate-day fasting.

The core #BodyBabySteps stuff.

They’re doing really well: he’s lost 26.2 pounds and she’s lost 14.4, or 8.8 and 4.8 pounds per month respectively.

It hasn’t always been easy, but she had a pretty amazing and encouraging breakthrough a little over a week ago which showed just how much progress she has made.

Not only or even mainly in weight loss, but in her reorientation toward food.

After hitting something of a plateau, she decided to try going for a longer fast than what has become her customary 24 hours. By waiting to break her fast until the next morning, she could stretch to 36 hours.

But as it turned out, she was busy in the morning and didn’t get to eat until about 2:30 p.m. So her fast ended up being…

47 hours!

Then just a couple of days later, she forgot she had meetings until 8 p.m., and so added an “accidental” 36-hour fast closely following her nearly two-day fast.

Three months ago she would not have believed this was possible.

She also was amazed that at the end of a 36-hour fast she would have such “great clarity and energy.”

The alternate-day fasting, eating dinner to satiety every evening but skipping breakfast and lunch on alternate days, helped her to overcome a habit of unthinking late-night eating.

As she has become fat-adapted and also more mindful of the importance of a narrower eating window, she stumbled into two fasts that were both longer than what she had planned.

At some point, when he and she have reached their goals, we’ll have an online “coming out” party for them, complete with before and after photos and their whole story.

They’ll join John Bishop and Rebecca Williams among those sharing their stories here.

And because we will have their in-the-moment observations from our coaching text thread, they’ll be really encouraging for others who are considering committing to the health journey.

But for now, I’ll just refer to them by their personal pronouns.

If you have questions about keto or fasting, feel free to ask in the comments below or in my social feeds on TwitterFacebook or LinkedIn.

If you have a story you’re willing to share to help inspire others, send me an email.

Reversing Type 2 Diabetes with a Low-Carb Diet

Dr. Sarah Hallberg, one of my Health Sherpas, says patients who want to reverse type 2 diabetes have three medically proven options, backed by multiple published studies:

  • Bariatric Surgery
  • Very Low Calorie Diet
  • Low Carbohydrate Diet

Bariatric Surgery works for many people, with 30% or more able to achieve long-term remission. It also has the obvious downsides of surgical risk and expense. But it should be presented as an option, and some people will find it right for them.

A Very Low Calorie Diet, depending on the study, ranges from 300 to 1,800 calories per day. While these work really well in the short term, there is an issue with weight gain after the period of calorie restriction ends. It’s difficult to maintain the weight loss: the faster you lose weight, the faster you tend to regain it, and progress on diabetes can be lost too.

Low Carbohydrate Diets – Dr. Hallberg points to 22 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 10 meta-analyses and 10 non-randomized trials, including six studies of two years or longer, including the Virta Health/Indiana University Health study she leads.

I think it’s worth watching the video below in its entirety for context, but if you want to skip ahead, she starts describing her results at about the 16:00 mark:

These results are phenomenal: Half of patients maintaining diabetes reversal at two years.

As she says, can you imagine if a drug had that kind of sustained effectiveness?

Here’s how the methods compare in blood sugar control:

Comparison of sleeve gastrectomy, gastric bypass, very low calorie diet and low-carbohydrate diet.

In HbA1c, low carbohydrate is better than sleeve or very low calorie at two years, and equal to bypass.

And here’s how they compare from a weight loss perspective:

As Dr. Hallberg pointed out, the patients in her study (the purple line) started at a higher weight, and the average time with diabetes before the study was 8 years. Shifting the purple line’s starting point down 10 kg would make it pretty similar to either of the surgical options.

I greatly admire Dr. Hallberg and her collaborators, and I think the work Virta Health is doing is outstanding. Their results are great, and I think their intensive coaching intervention is valuable for people adopting this new way of eating.

I would add a fourth approach that I think will be the most effective, however: a combination of a low carbohydrate diet with intermittent fasting.

It conceptually combines the effects of the purple and orange lines in the graphs above.

Dr. Jason Fung calls fasting “medical bariatrics.” It has the benefits of bariatric surgery without the surgical expense and risk. It’s a lot easier to undo, too: You simply resume eating.

In fact, you have unlimited flexibility in adjusting the dosage of fasting. You can start with a 12-hour eating window each day, or you can fast for 16 or 18 hours and only eat from noon to 6 p.m. or noon to 8 p.m.

You can even consider alternate-day fasting, as in the #July4Challenge.

Low carbohydrate eating makes those fasting periods much less difficult, because fat and protein are more satiating than carbohydrates.

It’s kind of magical how these two strategies work together.

One final observation: At about the 23-minute mark of the video, Dr. Hallberg makes a really important point about the misplaced emphasis on randomized controlled trials in gauging efficacy.

RCTs are important when you have a drug intervention, because you’re typically testing a drug vs. a placebo, and the only thing you’re asking of the patients in the study is to just be sure they take whichever pill is assigned.

Diet is different. Motivation matters.

So does belief. If you’re randomly assigned to a diet for purposes of a study, even if you’re really motivated to change, you may not have really bought into the rationale behind the diet.

More on belief in a bit.

Dr. Hallberg in the U.S. and Dr. David Unwin in the U.K. have each demonstrated that a significant portion of patients under their care (as many as half) are able to reverse type 2 diabetes, going off diabetes medications, through a truly low-carb diet.

They’re not alone. Dr. Eric Westman at Duke, Dr. Tro and Dr. Brian Lenzkes, Dr. Ken Berry and scores or even hundreds of others are doing the same, although perhaps not quite at the same scale or with rigorous comparative studies.

They’re just helping patients who are motivated to get healthy and lose weight, and who are willing to try a low-carb approach.

For type 2 diabetes reversal (and prevention) and for weight loss, low-carb works.

I believe low carb + periodic fasting works even better.

I can’t “prove” it by the RCT standard, and the people I’ve mentioned above may not all agree with the combination.

They each have their own emphases: Dr. Fung’s is mainly on fasting, while I think some of the others who promote low-carb think it’s most important to eat healthy fat and moderate protein meals to satiety. They say the key is avoiding hunger, which makes compliance easier.

My experience has been that combining both perspectives has led to the best result for Lisa and me.

Now back to what I said about belief.

There’s plenty of evidence that if you will adopt a low-carb eating pattern you can eat until you’re full, rarely feel hungry, improve your metabolic health and lose weight.

But as long as you toy with the idea instead of taking the plunge, you’ll never really know. As one of the great Christian theologians put it in a different context:

“Understanding is the reward of faith. Therefore, seek not to understand that you may believe, but believe that you may understand.”

St. Augustine of Hippo

Give low carb with periodic fasting a try.

Embrace the journey. Take the plunge.

If it doesn’t work for you, you can always have bariatric surgery later.

In the next few days I’ll have a post describing a new free community we’re setting up to support people in making these changes and swimming against the societal dietary currents. I look forward to telling you about it.

It will be another installment in the series about my health journey. You can follow along on FacebookTwitter and LinkedIn or subscribe by email

If you’re ready to get started yourself, use my #BodyBabySteps.

If you’ve found this helpful, I hope you’ll share with your friends using the buttons below.

Will July 4 be your Independence Day?

On America’s 245th birthday you will be about 20 weeks older than you are today.

How would you feel if you were 20 pounds lighter?

Wouldn’t you feel an amazing sense of freedom?

Like it’s your Independence Day?

I’m not saying you can have a beach body by Memorial Day. But if you lose just a pound a week, you will be down 20 by the 4th of July.

You can do it, and in the phrasing of our Social Media University, Global (SMUG) motto, Suus Non Ut Difficile, “It’s not that hard.”

I don’t have special meal replacement shakes or supplements or anything else to sell.

What I’m suggesting is totally free. In fact, it will save you money.

Two years ago, in 10 weeks of alternate-day fasting, I lost 14.2 pounds.

Lisa, despite her extra challenges being post-menopausal and with thyroid issues, lost 10.

In alternate-day fasting you still eat dinner every evening.

You just skip breakfast and lunch every other day, and so on alternate days you go from dinner one night until dinner the next without eating.

In that time you’ll burn about half a pound of fat because of your sustained low insulin levels.

Do it two or three times a week and you’ll lose at least a pound a week.

It’s a lot easier if you’re limiting carbohydrates and getting plenty of healthy fats. That prevents cravings that could lead to overeating during your feeding windows.

If you want to add some heavy whipping cream (not half-and-half) to your coffee on the fasting days, that’s OK and you may find it easier. It won’t spike your insulin, and you’ll switch pretty seamlessly between burning your stored fat and the fat in the cream, and then back again.

If you start now and just plug away at it week after week, you won’t believe the progress you’ll see by the time the fireworks fly.

Getting ready to leave on our Wild West Adventure

Lisa and I felt fantastic in August 2018, after our 10-week experiment, when we left for a three-week driving tour that took us to throughout the western U.S.

We feel even better now; another 15-20 pounds lighter and even more in control of our eating patterns.

If you’re not yet ready to dive into alternate-day fasting, start with the #BodyBabySteps.

The important thing is to start at some level today. Begin building your momentum. Small steps, repeated consistently, will get you there.

Check out My Health Journey for the full story of our health improvements, and my #BodyBabySteps for an approach to how I would do it if I were starting today, based on what I’ve learned.

I post updates frequently you can follow on FacebookTwitter  and LinkedIn, or you can subscribe by email to make sure you get them.

Have you tried alternate-day fasting? If so, what was your experience with it? If not, what questions do you have?

Extended Benefits of Extended Fasts

As I noted in an update the day after my Stepping Off the Wagon post, I was shocked that after eating a whole pizza and more than one gluten-free beer, I was still able to stay in therapeutic ketosis.

Since Lisa and I concluded our #3DayCancerPreventionFast on January 27, in addition to January 31 we have stepped off the wagon two more times: February 11 and last night.

While Lisa has stopped the daily glucose and ketone measurements between our monthly extended fasts, I have kept them up since then. My readings for the 24 hours after the first excursion are above, and below are those for the period after the February 11:

I technically was out of GKI ketosis on the morning of the 12th, but by fasting as I stepped back on the wagon I was back to moderate ketosis by dinner time.

So because we’ve handled our off-wagon ventures with few negative effects, and because Lisa was away most of the day yesterday, we decide to exchange Valentine’s Day presents a day late. Here was hers to me:

Some in the low-carb/ketogenic community believe it’s essential to always rigorously limit carbs to avoid undoing all of the good of ketosis, and that one step off the wagon will undo weeks of effort.

They say it puts you right back to square one.

I cautiously disagree, at least for myself and for Lisa.

One way it could derail us would be if it became a gateway to ravenous, uncontrolled carbohydrate indulgence.

I’m confident that won’t be the case for us today, because it hasn’t led to this in the past.

We will enjoy our black coffee this morning, and fast until dinner.

The other way it theoretically could cause a problem would be if it reversed the fat-adaptation we had achieved. I think the ketone readings above in my post-pizza periods – all of them 0.5 mmol/L or higher – show that the ketone production is continuing.

That’s a secondary benefit of extended fasting, on top of a generally low-carb eating pattern.

In addition to activating autophagy and apoptosis, an extended fast flips the fat-burning switch to high gear.

The fundamental idea behind ketogenic eating and fasting is to restore metabolic flexibility the ability to use both sugar and fat for fuel.

Unfortunately, the typical American diet has so much sugar and starch in their various forms that it destroys fat-burning capability.

As I finish this post before starting work, and having just taken my morning readings, I’ve seen my ketones dip to 0.4 mmol/L, the first time I’ve been below 0.5 in a month.

So it suggests I probably should wait until after the next #3DayCancerPreventionFast for another pizza night.

Update: I tracked my “day after” glucose and ketones three times today, and here were the readings:

With plenty of carbs in my system from a whole pizza and a couple of gluten-free beers, and with the normal morning rise in glucose levels, I wasn’t too surprised that ketones dipped a bit further even at noon. But with only black coffee in the morning and coffee with cream at noon, I’m now solidly back into GKI ketosis.

Time for some scrambled eggs for dinner!

See the whole series about my health journey. Follow along on FacebookTwitter and LinkedIn or subscribe by email

Rebecca Williams: Then and Now

I began telling the story of my health journey about 13 months ago on this blog to share what my wife Lisa and I had learned over the previous three years about getting metabolically healthy and losing weight.

We told Lisa’s story of losing at least 40 pounds in July, and followed up in November with her amazing achievement of fitting into her wedding dress for the first time in 36 years. We’re now both down 50 pounds or more from our respective peaks.

Along the way several readers have told us how we had helped to inspire them to try low-carb eating and intermittent fasting. That’s been really gratifying for us, because it’s exactly why we shared our stories in the first place.

So we were particularly happy John Bishop agreed to share his story in August, and that now Rebecca Williams, a colleague at Mayo Clinic, is doing likewise.

Below is Rebecca’s story in her own words. She’s living proof that the standard “eat less, move more” advice is simplistic and ineffective for weight loss in the real world.

And that there is a better way. Here’s what she sent me:

10 years ago, at the age of 41, I ran my first mile with the goal of finishing a marathon. Like many, I really thought that I would lose a tremendous amount of weight by running.

I was wrong. I lost a little, but I was still 60 pounds overweight when I crossed the marathon finish line a year and a half after I ran that first mile. Why was that? I thought I did everything I was supposed to do when running long distance. I carb loaded, I fueled with gels every 30-60 minutes, and since I was burning a tremendous number of calories, I rewarded myself afterwards with pancakes and ice cream.

However, when I step back and objectively assess what I did, I see where I went wrong. 

Rebecca at mile 25 of her 2012 marathon (left), and in a workout earlier this month.

On average, runners burn 100 calories per mile. So, let’s say I’m out for a 15-mile-long run. That means I’m burning 1,500 calories. However, carrying 60 extra pounds meant that 15 miles took me 3-4 hours, and if I was ingesting a 100 calorie gel every 30 minutes, I was taking in at least 600 calories. Then if I rewarded myself with pancakes and ice cream afterwards, that would quickly surpass the additional 900 calories I burned while running. No wonder I didn’t lose weight!

Over the past 10 years I continued running and finished a 200-mile relay, nine half marathons, and countless 5K’s. The weight hung on.

In March of 2020, my husband, Bruce, discovered Dr. Annette Bosworth (a.k.a. Dr. Boz), an internal medicine physician from South Dakota. He purchased her book Anyway You Can, and after reading it he was inspired. The book tells the story of how she saved her mother’s life. Her mother was battling stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL). Facing another round of chemo, her mother decided that she would rather die. Dr. Boz had been studying the science behind the ketogenic diet and was convinced that it would help her mother. The book is the full story of how the ketogenic diet helped her mother achieve optimal health while still battling this chronic cancer. Throughout the book she also explains the benefits of the ketogenic diet.

At the time I was reading this book, Lee Aase started posting stories about his and his wife, Lisa’s, health journey, and I was inspired by them. When I finished Dr. Boz’ book, I was convinced that this is what I needed to do. 

Bruce and I took Dr. Boz’ online course, Consistently Keto, and on September 7, 2020 we started our ketogenic journey.

  • We reduced our total (TOTAL not net) carbs to <20g per day.
  • We measure our urine ketones each morning and use the Chronometer app to track our food and activity.
  • I began my day with a bulletproof coffee using a tablespoon of salted ghee and a tablespoon of Brain Octane Oil (MCT). This would keep me satiated until Noon when I at two eggs and 3-4 strips of bacon. I had a half cup of mixed nuts and cheese for an afternoon snack, and dinner was a ribeye steak with creamed spinach.
  • As the weeks progressed, I started to incorporate 18:6 intermittent fasting. I dropped the bulletproof coffee and now drink it plain and black. My eating window is from Noon to 6pm. 

Since beginning this keto journey, I am rarely hungry, and the sugar/carb cravings are gone. I lost 25 pounds, and I am continuing to run. However, I now run in a fasted state as my body is using my fat for fuel.

I still have 35 pounds to lose in order to reach my goal weight, but I have to say that the ketogenic diet is by far the easiest thing I have ever done and the only thing that has ever worked to help me drop the weight. 

I feel amazing! So amazing, in fact, that I am training for my second marathon. In January 2021 I started a couch to marathon training program. The first 12 weeks is training for a 5K, the next 12 weeks are training for a 10K, the next 12 weeks are training for a half marathon, and then the final 12 weeks are training for the Walt Disney World marathon in January 2022. I’m looking forward to this experience allowing my body to burn fat for fuel rather than depend on carbs.

The hardest part of this was making the decision to do it. The easiest part is doing it.

If you have been considering trying low-carb living with intermittent fasting, I hope Rebecca’s story will be that extra nudge that gets you started.

If you have questions about keto or fasting, feel free to ask in the comments below or in my social feeds on Twitter, Facebook or LinkedIn.

If like John and Rebecca you have a story you’re willing to share to help inspire others, send me an email.

I hope you’ll pass along Rebecca’s story with your friends using the sharing buttons below.